Discover the new easier way to develop Kurento video applications

Java - Group Call

This tutorial shows how to work wih the concept of rooms, allowing to connect several clients between them using WebRTC technology, creating a multiconference.

Note

This tutorial has been configured to use https. Follow the instructions to secure your application.

For the impatient: running this example

You need to have installed the Kurento Media Server before running this example. Read the installation guide for further information.

To launch the application, you need to clone the GitHub project where this demo is hosted, and then run the main class:

git clone https://github.com/Kurento/kurento-tutorial-java.git
cd kurento-tutorial-java/kurento-group-call
git checkout 6.11.0
mvn -U clean spring-boot:run

Access the application connecting to the URL https://localhost:8443/ in a WebRTC capable browser (Chrome, Firefox).

Note

These instructions work only if Kurento Media Server is up and running in the same machine as the tutorial. However, it is possible to connect to a remote KMS in other machine, simply adding the flag kms.url to the JVM executing the demo. As we’ll be using maven, you should execute the following command

mvn -U clean spring-boot:run -Dkms.url=ws://kms_host:kms_port/kurento

Understanding this example

This tutorial shows how to work with the concept of rooms. Each room will create its own pipeline, being isolated from the other rooms. Clients connecting to a certain room, will only be able to exchange media with clients in the same room.

Each client will send its own media, and in turn will receive the media from all the other participants. This means that there will be a total of n*n webrtc endpoints in each room, where n is the number of clients.

When a new client enters the room, a new webrtc will be created and negotiated receive the media on the server. On the other hand, all participant will be informed that a new user has connected. Then, all participants will request the server to receive the new participant’s media.

The newcomer, in turn, gets a list of all connected participants, and requests the server to receive the media from all the present clients in the room.

When a client leaves the room, all clients are informed by the server. Then, the client-side code requests the server to cancel all media elements related to the client that left.

This is a web application, and therefore it follows a client-server architecture. At the client-side, the logic is implemented in JavaScript. At the server-side, we use a Spring-Boot based application server consuming the Kurento Java Client API, to control Kurento Media Server capabilities. All in all, the high level architecture of this demo is three-tier. To communicate these entities, two WebSockets are used. First, a WebSocket is created between client and application server to implement a custom signaling protocol. Second, another WebSocket is used to perform the communication between the Kurento Java Client and the Kurento Media Server. This communication takes place using the Kurento Protocol. For further information on it, please see this page of the documentation.

The following sections analyze in depth the server (Java) and client-side (JavaScript) code of this application. The complete source code can be found in GitHub.

Application Server Logic

This demo has been developed using Java in the server-side with Spring Boot framework. This technology can be used to embed the Tomcat web server in the application and thus simplify the development process.

Note

You can use whatever Java server side technology you prefer to build web applications with Kurento. For example, a pure Java EE application, SIP Servlets, Play, Vert.x, etc. Here we chose Spring Boot for convenience.

The main class of this demo is GroupCalldApp. As you can see, the KurentoClient is instantiated in this class as a Spring Bean. This bean is used to create Kurento Media Pipelines, which are used to add media capabilities to the application. In this instantiation we see that we need to specify to the client library the location of the Kurento Media Server. In this example, we assume it is located at localhost listening in port 8888. If you reproduce this example you’ll need to insert the specific location of your Kurento Media Server instance there.

Once the Kurento Client has been instantiated, you are ready for communicating with Kurento Media Server and controlling its multimedia capabilities.

@EnableWebSocket
@SpringBootApplication
public class GroupCallApp implements WebSocketConfigurer {

  @Bean
  public UserRegistry registry() {
    return new UserRegistry();
  }

  @Bean
  public RoomManager roomManager() {
    return new RoomManager();
  }

  @Bean
  public CallHandler groupCallHandler() {
    return new CallHandler();
  }

  @Bean
  public KurentoClient kurentoClient() {
    return KurentoClient.create();
  }

  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    SpringApplication.run(GroupCallApp.class, args);
  }

  @Override
  public void registerWebSocketHandlers(WebSocketHandlerRegistry registry) {
    registry.addHandler(groupCallHandler(), "/groupcall");
  }
}

This web application follows a Single Page Application architecture (SPA), and uses a WebSocket to communicate client with application server by means of requests and responses. Specifically, the main app class implements the interface WebSocketConfigurer to register a WebSocketHandler to process WebSocket requests in the path /groupcall.

CallHandler class implements TextWebSocketHandler to handle text WebSocket requests. The central piece of this class is the method handleTextMessage. This method implements the actions for requests, returning responses through the WebSocket. In other words, it implements the server part of the signaling protocol depicted in the previous sequence diagram.

In the designed protocol there are five different kind of incoming messages to the application server: joinRoom, receiveVideoFrom, leaveRoom and onIceCandidate. These messages are treated in the switch clause, taking the proper steps in each case.

public class CallHandler extends TextWebSocketHandler {

  private static final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(CallHandler.class);

  private static final Gson gson = new GsonBuilder().create();

  @Autowired
  private RoomManager roomManager;

  @Autowired
  private UserRegistry registry;

  @Override
  public void handleTextMessage(WebSocketSession session, TextMessage message) throws Exception {
    final JsonObject jsonMessage = gson.fromJson(message.getPayload(), JsonObject.class);

    final UserSession user = registry.getBySession(session);

    if (user != null) {
      log.debug("Incoming message from user '{}': {}", user.getName(), jsonMessage);
    } else {
      log.debug("Incoming message from new user: {}", jsonMessage);
    }

    switch (jsonMessage.get("id").getAsString()) {
      case "joinRoom":
        joinRoom(jsonMessage, session);
        break;
      case "receiveVideoFrom":
        final String senderName = jsonMessage.get("sender").getAsString();
        final UserSession sender = registry.getByName(senderName);
        final String sdpOffer = jsonMessage.get("sdpOffer").getAsString();
        user.receiveVideoFrom(sender, sdpOffer);
        break;
      case "leaveRoom":
        leaveRoom(user);
        break;
      case "onIceCandidate":
        JsonObject candidate = jsonMessage.get("candidate").getAsJsonObject();

        if (user != null) {
          IceCandidate cand = new IceCandidate(candidate.get("candidate").getAsString(),
              candidate.get("sdpMid").getAsString(), candidate.get("sdpMLineIndex").getAsInt());
          user.addCandidate(cand, jsonMessage.get("name").getAsString());
        }
        break;
      default:
        break;
    }
  }

  @Override
  public void afterConnectionClosed(WebSocketSession session, CloseStatus status) throws Exception {
      ...
  }

  private void joinRoom(JsonObject params, WebSocketSession session) throws IOException {
      ...
  }

  private void leaveRoom(UserSession user) throws IOException {
      ...
  }
}

In the following snippet, we can see the afterConnectionClosed method. Basically, it removes the userSession from registry and throws out the user from the room.

@Override
public void afterConnectionClosed(WebSocketSession session, CloseStatus status) throws Exception {
   UserSession user = registry.removeBySession(session);
   roomManager.getRoom(user.getRoomName()).leave(user);
}

In the joinRoom method, the server checks if there are a registered room with the name specified, add the user into this room and registries the user.

private void joinRoom(JsonObject params, WebSocketSession session) throws IOException {
   final String roomName = params.get("room").getAsString();
   final String name = params.get("name").getAsString();
   log.info("PARTICIPANT {}: trying to join room {}", name, roomName);

   Room room = roomManager.getRoom(roomName);
   final UserSession user = room.join(name, session);
   registry.register(user);
}

The leaveRoom method finish the video call from one user.

private void leaveRoom(UserSession user) throws IOException {
    final Room room = roomManager.getRoom(user.getRoomName());
    room.leave(user);
    if (room.getParticipants().isEmpty()) {
      roomManager.removeRoom(room);
    }
}

Client-Side Logic

Let’s move now to the client-side of the application. To call the previously created WebSocket service in the server-side, we use the JavaScript class WebSocket. We use a specific Kurento JavaScript library called kurento-utils.js to simplify the WebRTC interaction with the server. This library depends on adapter.js, which is a JavaScript WebRTC utility maintained by Google that abstracts away browser differences. Finally jquery.js is also needed in this application.

These libraries are linked in the index.html web page, and are used in the conferenceroom.js. In the following snippet we can see the creation of the WebSocket (variable ws) in the path /groupcall. Then, the onmessage listener of the WebSocket is used to implement the JSON signaling protocol in the client-side. Notice that there are three incoming messages to client: existingParticipants, newParticipantArrived, participantLeft, receiveVideoAnswer and iceCandidate. Convenient actions are taken to implement each step in the communication. For example, in functions start the function WebRtcPeer.WebRtcPeerSendrecv of kurento-utils.js is used to start a WebRTC communication.

var ws = new WebSocket('wss://' + location.host + '/groupcall');
var participants = {};
var name;

window.onbeforeunload = function() {
   ws.close();
};

ws.onmessage = function(message) {
   var parsedMessage = JSON.parse(message.data);
   console.info('Received message: ' + message.data);

   switch (parsedMessage.id) {
   case 'existingParticipants':
      onExistingParticipants(parsedMessage);
      break;
   case 'newParticipantArrived':
      onNewParticipant(parsedMessage);
      break;
   case 'participantLeft':
      onParticipantLeft(parsedMessage);
      break;
   case 'receiveVideoAnswer':
      receiveVideoResponse(parsedMessage);
      break;
   case 'iceCandidate':
      participants[parsedMessage.name].rtcPeer.addIceCandidate(parsedMessage.candidate, function (error) {
           if (error) {
            console.error("Error adding candidate: " + error);
            return;
           }
       });
       break;
   default:
      console.error('Unrecognized message', parsedMessage);
   }
}

function register() {
   name = document.getElementById('name').value;
   var room = document.getElementById('roomName').value;

   document.getElementById('room-header').innerText = 'ROOM ' + room;
   document.getElementById('join').style.display = 'none';
   document.getElementById('room').style.display = 'block';

   var message = {
      id : 'joinRoom',
      name : name,
      room : room,
   }
   sendMessage(message);
}

function onNewParticipant(request) {
   receiveVideo(request.name);
}

function receiveVideoResponse(result) {
   participants[result.name].rtcPeer.processAnswer (result.sdpAnswer, function (error) {
      if (error) return console.error (error);
   });
}

function callResponse(message) {
   if (message.response != 'accepted') {
      console.info('Call not accepted by peer. Closing call');
      stop();
   } else {
      webRtcPeer.processAnswer(message.sdpAnswer, function (error) {
         if (error) return console.error (error);
      });
   }
}

function onExistingParticipants(msg) {
   var constraints = {
      audio : true,
      video : {
         mandatory : {
            maxWidth : 320,
            maxFrameRate : 15,
            minFrameRate : 15
         }
      }
   };
   console.log(name + " registered in room " + room);
   var participant = new Participant(name);
   participants[name] = participant;
   var video = participant.getVideoElement();

   var options = {
         localVideo: video,
         mediaConstraints: constraints,
         onicecandidate: participant.onIceCandidate.bind(participant)
       }
   participant.rtcPeer = new kurentoUtils.WebRtcPeer.WebRtcPeerSendonly(options,
      function (error) {
        if(error) {
           return console.error(error);
        }
        this.generateOffer (participant.offerToReceiveVideo.bind(participant));
   });

   msg.data.forEach(receiveVideo);
}

function leaveRoom() {
   sendMessage({
      id : 'leaveRoom'
   });

   for ( var key in participants) {
      participants[key].dispose();
   }

   document.getElementById('join').style.display = 'block';
   document.getElementById('room').style.display = 'none';

   ws.close();
}

function receiveVideo(sender) {
   var participant = new Participant(sender);
   participants[sender] = participant;
   var video = participant.getVideoElement();

   var options = {
      remoteVideo: video,
      onicecandidate: participant.onIceCandidate.bind(participant)
    }

   participant.rtcPeer = new kurentoUtils.WebRtcPeer.WebRtcPeerRecvonly(options,
         function (error) {
           if(error) {
              return console.error(error);
           }
           this.generateOffer (participant.offerToReceiveVideo.bind(participant));
   });;
}

function onParticipantLeft(request) {
   console.log('Participant ' + request.name + ' left');
   var participant = participants[request.name];
   participant.dispose();
   delete participants[request.name];
}

function sendMessage(message) {
   var jsonMessage = JSON.stringify(message);
   console.log('Sending message: ' + jsonMessage);
   ws.send(jsonMessage);
}

Dependencies

This Java Spring application is implemented using Maven. The relevant part of the pom.xml is where Kurento dependencies are declared. As the following snippet shows, we need two dependencies: the Kurento Client Java dependency (kurento-client) and the JavaScript Kurento utility library (kurento-utils) for the client-side. Other client libraries are managed with webjars:

<dependencies>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.kurento</groupId>
      <artifactId>kurento-client</artifactId>
   </dependency>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.kurento</groupId>
      <artifactId>kurento-utils-js</artifactId>
   </dependency>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.webjars</groupId>
      <artifactId>webjars-locator</artifactId>
   </dependency>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.webjars.bower</groupId>
      <artifactId>bootstrap</artifactId>
   </dependency>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.webjars.bower</groupId>
      <artifactId>demo-console</artifactId>
   </dependency>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.webjars.bower</groupId>
      <artifactId>adapter.js</artifactId>
   </dependency>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.webjars.bower</groupId>
      <artifactId>jquery</artifactId>
   </dependency>
   <dependency>
      <groupId>org.webjars.bower</groupId>
      <artifactId>ekko-lightbox</artifactId>
   </dependency>
</dependencies>

Note

We are in active development. You can find the latest version of Kurento Java Client at Maven Central.

Kurento Java Client has a minimum requirement of Java 7. Hence, you need to include the following properties in your pom:

<maven.compiler.target>1.7</maven.compiler.target>
<maven.compiler.source>1.7</maven.compiler.source>